Kalu : The Dam-ning Of A River And Its People

By Meenal Tatpati:in youth ki awaaz

In the latest minutes of the Forest Advisory Committee a small paragraph titled Agenda Item No. 4 highlights a dam on the river Kalu in Murbad Taluka of Thane District. It talks about the submergence of 18 villages, a “comprehensive” rehabilitation package of 68.75 crore being sanctioned and goes on to recommend the project for clearance. What the paragraph does not reveal however, is, the huge socio-economic and cultural impact that a dam diverting 999.328 ha of forest land has already had on the ecology and the people, close to 18,000, who stand to lose their land, forests and livelihood.

Anti-dam slogans on the walls of the houses in Murbad


The Forests and its people

Murbad is a part of the ecologically sensitive Western Ghats. Many threatened species of fauna and flora and a rich biodiversity have made ecologists recommend it as an Ecologically Sensitive Area. It is also home to the Thakar, Mahadeo Koli and Katkari tribal communities, known for their dependence and intricate links with the forests. The forest here provides shelter, livelihood and sustenance. Produce from Mahua, Tendu, Palas, Mango and Jamun trees is bartered and sold in weekly markets. The forests have a dense cover of Aain, Khair, Kandhol and Khevada trees. Several medicinal plants and wild edible vegetables are also sourced. The streams and rivers provide fish and crabs and water to drink throughout the year. Bibi Pandurang Wakh of Pejwadi hamlet says, “The jungle here provides everything. Even during droughts its bitter tubers sustained us. If the dam comes, our rightful land will go. How will we survive? Where will we take our children and go?”

Mahua Flowers                                    Tubers from the forest                           fishing equipment


The tribal communities have made utmost use of the village land having planted trees like Mango, Jackfruit, Banana, and Cashew. On their small farmlands, they grow pulses and vegetables, selling them at the local markets.

Bamboo works


Besides being a rich resource base, the forests have tremendous socio-cultural significance. At Chasole, a village close to the Dam site, is an ancient temple, complete with hero stones. This temple will submerge under the dam waters. The archaeological significance will be lost. So will several sacred groves in villages that are slated to lose their forests.

The sacred grove at Kharpatwadi and the Hatkeshwar Temple in Chasole will be submerged


Illegal and unscrupulous attempts of the project proponents

The locals found about the project when JPC’s and dumpers arrived at the dam site, cut thousands of trees and excavated huge quantities of soil to begin building the dam wall. After repeated pleas to the contractors to stop the work failed, the local villagers sought the help of Shramik Mukti Sanghatna, a local organization working for tribal welfare in the region. An RTI filed by the Sanghatna revealed a tangled web of manipulation of laws and unethical tactics being used by the project proponents to further this project.

The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dweller’s (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006; an Act enacted to “redress historical injustice” meted out to tribals and forest dependent communities has not been implemented in the area. The Act provides that no forest dependent community can be evicted from forest land under their occupation till their rights under the Act are recognized and verified. It also provides for rights to be recognized over community forests and resources. These rights have not been recognized.

The locals had not been given prior information about the proposed dam. Being a tribal area, consultations with the gram sabha regarding the project as stated under PESA were conveniently sidelined by the project proponents. The construction of the dam began in late 2010, without forest clearance. The project proponents also engaged in direct land deals with some tribal families which is illegal under the Maharashtra Land Revenue Code. This was done with total secrecy, and the soil required to build the dam was excavated from this land.

In June 2011, the Sanghatna filed a PIL in the Mumbai High Court against the project proponent on the basis of the issue of forest clearance. Meanwhile, the construction of the dam continued, amidst protests and dharnas by the project affected. The proposal was sent for FAC clearance only in August 2011. The project proponents used various tactics of coercion and threats to break the strong opposition to the dam, offering money to the landless and creating chasms within the community. However, people continued to oppose the dam, and in March 2012, the Mumbai High Court stayed the construction of the dam. By this time, 20% construction of the dam wall was already complete.

The Kalu River


The forests of Shisewadi


Facing Displacement

These life-giving forests stand to disappear if the project is eventually completed. Also slated to disappear is the tribal whose identity is intricately linked with this forest. They will be lost, as statistics, a displaced population.

The rehabilitation plan announced by the district authorities provides about Rs 6 lakh to each affected family. The official figure of affected people is pegged at about 3000. This has been calculated without conducting either an EIA or a Social Impact Assessment (made mandatory by the National Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy, 2007). Sangathan activists and locals say that about 40-42 hamlets will be affected, some whose land will submerge, some whose forests. Only 50% of the people in the affected villages own land, which means that half the population depends on the forests for sustenance. If the forests disappear, so do the people who depend on it. The actual figure of affected individuals is about 18,000! This is only the backwash effect of the actual dam. The water will be supplied to Navi Mumbai, about a 100 km away, in canals and piplelines, affecting thousands of villages downstream as well. But the proposal has no comments on this.

12 gram sabhas passed resolutions rejecting the project. They neither want the dam, nor the rehabilitation money.
Nausa Shiva Waghe of Shisewadi revealed the flaw in the way rehabilitation packages in our country are planned. When asked why they do not want to take the money offered and leave, he said, “What will we do with the money? It is never enough. Money comes, alcohol enters, vehicles enter and then the money goes!

A rehabilitation package that only provides money completely misses the point. The displaced population is completely alienated, not just from their material source of livelihood but also from cultural and knowledge. Monetary assessment of these values is dehumanizing. The locals here will face loss of identity which money will not be able to restore.

The Kalu river bed with the dam wall in the background


The future

After rejecting the proposal in April 2012, the FAC in its latest meeting on 4th April has recommended the project for clearance with certain “conditions”. The Chief Minister of Maharashtra has repeatedly stated in his letters to the Ministry of Environment and Forests that the project is of vital importance to Mumbai’s water supply needs. As it expands in size and population, land, water and resources from surrounding areas will continue to be absorbed into this metropolis to feed and shelter its increasing population. Thousands of people along the banks of the rivers that are slated to provide water to Mumbai and other cities stand threatened to be dispossessed, stripped off their land and livelihood, their forests and their rivers. They do not figure in the decision making process making this a short-sighted and incomplete attempt at providing the need of one section of the society without taking into consideration the needs of the other. The Kalu Project is just one of 8 projects slated to come up in this area. On the Kalu itself, a hydroelectricity project is under construction upstream in Malsejh Ghat in Pune District. The geological sensitive nature of the Kalu basin being coupled with absolute disregard of the provisions of cumulative impact assessments of dams in this region will prove dangerous to the ecological and geological stability of the area. A complete socio-cultural and economic impact assessment of such projects, coupled with a biodiversity assessment done by independent agencies is a requirement that cannot be sidelined in such projects.
Meanwhile in Murbad, the people’s struggle will continue.

The Kalu Dam is being proposed by the Government of Maharashtra (GoM), Raigad Irrigation Division No.2 (Kokan Irrigation Development Corporation), the Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA). The contract to build the dam has been given to F.A. Enterprises, Mumbai. It is slated to provide drinking water to Navi Mumbai and Thane submerging about 2300 ha land out of which about a 1000 ha is forest land.

-Meenal Tatpati with inputs from Shiba Desor, Kalpavriksh, Pune.
(Based on a visit to 8 villages that will be affected by the Kalu Dam Project)


Corrupting GOD- Dalits give ‘donation’ to enter temple #WTFnews #blackmail #discrimination

MOHIT M. RAO, The Hindu Jan 7,2013

Residents of the Dalit Colony at Mullyakajje near Sullia. Photo:H.S.Manjunath
Residents of the Dalit Colony at Mullyakajje near Sullia. Photo:H.S.Manjunath

No one is certain when or how the practice started in the non-descript village where 38 houses form the Dalit colony at Mullyakajje on the foothills of the Western Ghats.

Come January 11, and for the first time in centuries, Dalits of this remote village on the Karnataka-Kerala border will henceforth be allowed to witness a temple procession pass through, instead of being evicted. However, it was not social reform, but Rs. 1 lakh spent as “offerings”, as “demanded by the temple deity” that has stopped the caste-discriminatory practice. Dalits will also be allowed to enter the temple from now on.

No one is certain when or how the practice started in the non-descript village where 38 houses form the Dalit colony at Mullyakajje on the foothills of the Western Ghats. What they do know is that when the annual Bhandar (procession of donations from a smaller temple to a larger one) of the Bajjapila Ullakullu temple passes through, all the Dalits – some 200 of them belonging to the Adi Dravida Scheduled Caste – evict the village in silence.

“We lock our doors, and leave the village in the morning. We come back next morning. Schoolchildren miss school, we skip our day of work. There is no choice,” said K.S. Prasad (17), an agricultural labourer.

His grandmother, Chennu (60), has been doing this for as long as she can remember. “Even my grandparents did this without knowing why. There is fear of the wrath of Ullakullu (the temple deity),” she said.

The mythology

Unsure of the specifics, 85-year-old Bhatiya offers the bit-piece mythology behind the practice: “There is a belief in the temple that some 300 years ago, when Ullakullu was being taken on a procession, inebriated members of our caste obstructed their path by placing buffalo meat on the road and threw stones at the deity. Angered by this, God cursed us to leave the place during the procession.”

When asked if he believed this, he said he did not know, and all that “mattered” was the temple and the upper-castes — around 200 other-caste households surround the colony – believed it.

It isn’t only during the procession that they face discrimination; until a week ago, Dalits did not have entry into the Bajjapila temple.

“We give our harake (vows) and donations through other castes who can enter the temple. I am yet to see the deity, though I have been offering money, areca, and coconuts for decades,” said Bhatiya.

Around six months ago, a few educated Dalits – a rarity in the village – had asked, through other castes, for permission to enter the temple. When this reached the ears of G. Shankarnarayan (88), head of the Bajjapila Ullakullu Temple Committee, he offered to perform the ‘tamboola puja’ wherein the deity is asked to offer a solution.

“During the puja, the deity told us that the Dalits had to donate a six-foot high bronze lamp and five kg of ghee made from buffalo milk. The deity would forgive past sins of the community,” he told The Hindu. Incidentally, the temple is at Moodekoolu, the hometown of the former Chief Minister D.V. Sadananda Gowda.

Since then the Dalits, most of them daily-wage workers, scrambled to collect funds. The puja itself cost Rs. 20,000, pujas at three other local temples, and the lamp made in Coimbatore took the cost up to around Rs. 1 lakh.

‘Paying for sins?’

“Each house paid Rs. 2,500, after months of saving. We don’t know if it is a bribe or we’re paying for the sins of the community. But we’re happy this is over and we can go inside the temple,” said Sundar (38), whose family, including his mother Ammani (68), and his one-year-old child Mokshita, hitherto braved the winter cold on the streets of Sullia around 8 km away during the procession.


However, the people of the village said there continues to be forms of that cannot be rectified by pujas.

The Adi Dravida still have no entry into the house of upper castes; are considered untouchables by the upper-castes who do not touch them even while giving wages for working in their fields; they do not have access to water in their wells while food is served outside the house only on plantain leaves.


Kalu dam: State looks to MoEF again

Date: 10 October 2012 – Kalu dam: State looks to MoEF again

The state government has applied to the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) once again, seeking the go -ahead for the construction of a dam on the River Kalu in Thane District. The Ministry had earlier rejected the proposal sent by the state, which had already begun construction of the dam without the necessary sanctions.

The government on Tuesday informed the Bombay high court that it had applied for the sanction once more on the grounds that the dam water is meant for drinking purposes, and thus the permission to build it should be granted. The plea also states that the dam, if constructed, would improve the situation of drinking water availability in areas such as Mira-Bhayandar and Navi Mumbai.

However, the MoEF, based on a report submitted by its Forest Advisory Committee, has stated that the government should not be allowed to build the dam. This was communicated to the state government as per a letter dated July 27.

The report states that the project area fell under the ecologically sensitive zone of the Western Ghats, and also involved rehabilitation of the villages, a rehabilitation plan, an environment impact assessment report, a technical report on wildlife status and management, a gram sabha resolution for the forest dwellers who have been granted rights under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers Act.

The government failed to furnish all the above documents, and in the MoEF recommended that the case be closed.

The decision was given during the hearing of a petition filed by Shramik Mukhti Sanghatana, an NGO, that has alleged that the dam over the river was being built without required permission from the forest department.

On June 5, DNA had first reported how the dam, if built, would submerge an area of 2,100 hectares, including around 1,000 hectares of dense forest, and displace four villages.

Subsequently, in an affidavit filed by the state government, it had admitted that work on Kalu dam in Murbad began in October 2010 without required permission from the Centre and the MoEF.

According to the state, as per a resolution passed on July 9, 2009, it was granted an approval for building the dam. However, the Sanghatana argued that it was only after they moved the court that the state had sought the necessary permissions.

The Kalu dam, after being built, will be able to store a total capacity of 407.99MCM of water.

A total of 2258.87 hectares of land is going to be submerged under water. A total of 787 families likely to be affected by the project, and each family is being provided with Rs7 lakh as compensation.

A total area of 999.32 hectares is being reserved in Beed district to relocate the forest land which will be used for the project.

‘The concept of progress now is illusory’ #mustread

Published: Thursday, Aug 9, 2012, 11:20 IST
By Subir Ghosh | Place: Bangalore | Agency: DNA


The genial, lanky man who opens the door to greet you hardly looks like one who should be in the thick of a controversy. But the report of a panel chaired by Madhav Gadgil is today at the centre of a heated debate — that originally hinged on the Western Ghats, but has since been enlarged. Gadgil, in a free-wheeling interview with Subir Ghosh, dwells at length on the Ghats and minces no words about the so-called schism between development and environment.

The report of the Western Ghats Ecology Expert Panel (WGEEP), which was chaired by you, is in cold storage. After all the work, where do you stand now?
I think I managed to get a very good response, at least from civil society, besides some people in the administration as well as the political system. And possibly, for the first time, a lot of people are reading what has been very objectively recorded about what has happened (in the Western Ghats over the years). I see the report, apart from its specific recommendations, as being a fairly comprehensive documentation. This is something I think is worthwhile. It should reach out to people. Many people, especially the urban middle classes who certainly play a role in terms of public pressure, are simply not aware of the facts on the ground. Our report attempts to get this information out to people. It has certainly got people thinking. I think, in a way, it was a very good thing that they (the government) did not release it to the public, leading to demands that it should be released because people were very curious. Come to think of it, I was looking at a website a few days back and I was surprised to see that a private coaching centre for competitive exams had questions about the Ghats in a sample set. And, mind you, this was for a clerical grade exam for banks. So, if people studying for clerical positions in banks are aware of the issue, I must imagine there is a large number of people who must now be abreast with the (Western Ghats) issue. This is bound to be positive response from the government in the long run. I don’t think it can be dismissed that readily. This may lead to some debate and developments. Even the political class seems to have been taking cognisance. Let’s see what happens.

In other words, if not anything, people are definitely more aware of the Western Ghats issue, by and large?
Definitely. A Malayalam language weekly in Kerala dedicated an entire issue devoted to the Western Ghats developments. Many of the panel members too contributed to the edition. I myself keep writing in a number of Marathi publications. There are some publications that are planning thematic special issues too. By seeing more people becoming aware, the government will eventually have to act.

Given the range of recommendations in the report, many of them were even seen as very stringent. Do you think it was too much for the governments (the Union and states) to take?
The mandate itself was very clear, and we did not step outside the mandate at all. The mandate, among other things, included making recommendations about ecologically sensitive zones, their delineation, etc. The panel’s report has been accepted, though not acted upon. The conclusions were evident. But we certainly realised that all of it cannot be set aside, like those pertaining to the protected areas. We have suggested a set of guidelines, and we have also talked about a starting point for a grassroots level debate. And these are not to be taken as final. A people-oriented process should be set in motion to decide on the exact measures that need to be put in place. It was not a question just of regulatory measures; we have also made a lot of promotional suggestions. One of the positive steps that all the governments can readily accept is to start giving farmers special payments like Australia does for sequestering carbon in the soil. These are things where there is no question of being stringent. Maybe it goes against the interests of the chemicals and fertilisers industry, which is what the government wants to support (and not the farmers). But they cannot openly say that. This apart, we had pointed out that there are a number of laws which are being violated. We need proper monitoring of what is happening and we must have a system in place which will be effective.

Since you mention governments, which one do you think was the most vocal in going against the WGEEP report?
None of them have communicated anything directly to me. Going just by newspaper reports, it is very difficult to judge. For instance, in Karnataka, they seem to be talking more about the UNESCO’s World Heritage Site (WHS) status to the Ghats than our report.

More….continue reading here



Immediate Release—-MoEF Rejects Forest Clearance to Kalu Dam in Maharshtra


MMRDA, KIDC and Mah Govt has a lot to answer for


In a significant decision, on the 2nd April 2012, the Forest Advisory Committee (FAC) of the Ministry of Environment and Forests rejected granting Forest Clearance to Kalu Dam, coming up in the Western Ghats of Murbad Taluka in Thane District. Kalu is just one of the 10+ large dams coming up around Mumbai, which are all showing blatant disregard for any environmental, social or procedural laws.


Kalu Dam would have submerged nearly 1000 hectares (2200 acres) of forest in the global biodiversity hotspot of Western Ghats, just 7 kilometres from the Kalsubai Sanctuary. Apart from forest land submergence, the dam was set to submerge 18 villages and affect 18000 inhabitants, mostly Tribals who have been entirely dependent on their forests and river for survival.


The Konkan Irrigation Development Corporation (KIDC), who was building this dam, being financed by the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) has shown utter ‘lack of respect to the laws of the land’, as per the report from the Regional Chief Conservator of Forests. The work started on the dam site more than a year back and hundreds of trees were cut, without a Forest Clearance, blatantly violating the Forest Conservation Act (1980) and the Forest Rights Act (2006). When Shramik Mukti Sangathana and SANDRP approached the officials about this, they were told by KIDC engineers that ‘in order to reach a destination fast, we have to jump signals!” These broken signals include No Forest Clearance, No Environmental Impact Assessment or the Environment Management Plan for the project, No Social Impact Assessment, No Rehabilitation and Resettlement plan in Place, No Wildlife Management plan, No options assessment, No Public consultations amongst many more.


The dam construction had already started in full swing in the last year itself, breaking multiple laws like PESA (Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act, Forest Rights Act and ForestConservation Act.


Shramik Mukti Sangathana had filed a PIL in the Bombay High Court against the dam in June 2011. When the Regional Chief Conservator of Forests, Central zone made a visit to the dam site in October 2011, he was taken aback at the extent of destruction taking place in the absence of any clearances and in his strong-worded report submitted to the MoEF, pointed out the proponent had no respect for the laws of the land and took permission from MoEF for granted. Significantly, KIDC gave work order to contractor in May 2011, but submitted the proposal to MoEF only in August 2011. KIDC also grossly underestimated the number of trees to be felled and villages which will be affected. It did not even consider those villages which were to be cut off by the dam.


According to MMRDA, of the approximately 850 crore budget of Kalu, more than 112 crores have been already given to KIDC. It is shocking that MMRDA and our Irrigation Department allocated, released and spent such a huge amount of public money on a dam illegally, destroyed land, forests, river and the villages without taking any requisite permission or without any respect to multiple gramsabha resolutions against the project, violating the PESA.


The Forest Advisory Committee, while “recommending to close this case” has said that “it has taken note of the complaints received about this dam and also that State Government has not submitted any of the reports requested by the MoEF”.


Shramik Mukti Sangathana and SANDRP have been following this matter for over a year and we had sent representations to the MoEF and Forest Advisory Committee since May  2011, providing them with photographic and documentary evidences of the illegal work going on at Kalu. While we welcome FAC’s decision to reject Forest clearance to Kalu, we urge the MoEF to take punitive action against those responsible for violating the FRA, PESA and Forest Act, from the proponent as well as the contractor. There are multiple dams coming up in the ecologically sensitive Western Ghats around Mumbai and a punitive measure will set an example for the other dams coming up too. Most of these dams have no EIA, EMP, Env Clearance, public consultations, options assessment, Social Impact Assessment, or independent monitoring and scrutiny. They all displace tribals without their consent or without just R&R plans. And most of them are not even necessary as better options exist. We also urge MoEF to change the EIA notification to ensure that the dams are not allowed without EIA, public hearings and environment clearance. The Union Environment Minister in any should not even consider giving forest clearance to the project, over ruling the FAC decision, as she did in case of the 300 MW Alaknanda hydro project of GMR in Uttarakhand, which now the National Green Tribunal has stayed.


Indavi Tulpule, Shramik Mukti Sangathan, Thane, indavi.t@gmail.com,             09869656073

Parineeta Dandekar, www.sandrp.in, Pune, parineeta.dandekar@gmail.com,             09860030742



Student’s Arrest: The Lingaram Kodopi of South India?

MANGALORE – Arrest of a student pursuing Post Graduation from Mangalore University on the charges of Naxal link, has created a row between civil society and administration in Dakshina Kannada district.

Vittala, a student of Mass Communication and Journalism, along with his father Linganna (53) was arrested on Friday 2nd March, from his house located in Kutlur village of Beltangadi Taluk amidst the dense Western Ghats, while another son of Linganna, Purushottam is absconding. Anti Naxal Force (ANF) armed with various charges like sedition, is hunting for him.

Vittala, a member of Malekudia ST Community dwelling in the Western Ghats is the only person to study beyond SSLC. He was an active associate of Anti Naxal student outfit, SFI. He had also engaged himself with several ‘Rights’ organizations fighting for the cause of Moolanivasis and Dalits of this region.

Last Friday, on the 2nd of March, a personnel of Anti Naxal Force (ANF) barged into the house of Linganna, a collie, and allegedly beat him up. He arrested him and his son Vittala, who had come home to see his father, on the charges of supporting the Naxal movement and hence waging a war against the nation..

According to the Police, who carried out a combing operation, Linganna, his son Vittala and Purushottama are supporters of Naxal outfits. They claim that handbills, paper cuttings on Naxal issues, binoculars and other related materials were recovered from Linganna’s house during the operation.

But according to the students and people who know Vittala, he is a decent and brilliant student, and was very regular to the classes. He was also fighting for the cause of Moolanivasis, especially against forceful eviction and their Land Rights.

Anti Naxal Force has taken Vittala into police custody after producing them in Beltangadi court, while Linganna was sentenced to judicial custody by the Court.

Several organizations have been protesting against the arrest of both the father and son, alleging that the government has adapted alternate means to sabotage the voice of people fighting for justice and for the Rights of moolanivasis, so that it can easily evacuate them from the forests.

Rights’ organizations of this region have been raising doubts over the functioning of the Anti Naxal Force since a long time. They have been demanding the administration to stop the practice of stereotyping Malekudia and Dalits as Naxalites. Malekudia is a primitive tribe dwelling in the Western Ghats of South Canara and is a very backward community.

Read More at Newzfirst here


Nuclear Effect: The Story of villages within the radiation zone

By Sayed Isthiyakh

KAIGA (KARWAR) – Kaiga located amidst dense forest of Sahyadri section of Western Ghats in Uttara Kannada District – one of the biggest districts of Karnataka State with abundant natural resources. The district has varied geographical features with thick forest, perennial rivers and abundant flora and fauna and a long coastal line.

Apart from natural resources the district has some man-made wonders. Supa Dam, Kadra Dam, Kodasalli Dam and Gerusoppa Dam are important among Hydro Electric Power Projects while Kaiga Generating Station is important Nuclear Power Project.

Kali Nadi Hydro Electric Project (KPCL) set-up across west flowing Kali River releases endless energy. Having origin at Diggi village in Western Ghats, joins Arabian Sea after completing journey of 160 kms.

The estimated power potential of the river is about 1700 MW with an annual yield of 6500 MU. Supa Dam, Kodasalli Dam, Kadra Dam are built in different phases having number of power generation units along with small dams across tributary rivers.

The main tribes of the district are Sidhi, Kunabi, Halakki Vokkaliga, Gonda and Gouli are spread across the district.

The five villages Balemane, Hartuga, Harur, Balase, and Sulageri come within five kilometers of radius of Kaiga Atomic Power Plant. The location of the villages and hamlets is that they are surrounded in one direction by Kaiga Atomic Power Plant, in another direction by Kali hydro power dam and its back water, and yet in another direction by the gigantic Sahyadri mountains.

This is a sensitive area wherein if any untoward man-made or natural disaster happens, it would be very difficult to protect the population residing in the area, it is even not possible to reach the area.

Read more here


Kractivism-Gonaimate Videos

Protest to Arrest

Faking Democracy- Free Irom Sharmila Now

Faking Democracy- Repression Anti- Nuke activists


Kamayaninumerouno – Youtube Channel


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