PRESS RELEASE- #Justiceverma recommendations in context of assaults against women with disabilities #delhigangrape


National Platform for the Rights of the Disabled

4, Ashoka Road, New Delhi 110 001

 

 

January 24, 2013

 

 

Press Statement

 

The National Platform for the Rights of the Disabled (NPRD) welcomes the report and recommendations of the Justice Verma Committee concerning sexual violence against women.

The NPRD puts on record its appreciation of the seriousness with which the Committee has considered the specific issues concerning women with disabilities and the sexual assaults they face. Representatives of the National Platform for the Rights of the Disabled (NPRD) met the Committee on three occasions, and made its submissions.

The Committee has, amongst others, made the following recommendations, in the context of assaults against women with disabilities:

Duty of the State: The Committee has affirmed the duty of the State as the guarantor of the Fundamental Rights of disabled women and has stated that the involvement of private actors in providing services to the disabled, does not absolve the State of its Constitutional duty towards them.

The Committee has also invoked the idea of parens patriae (the State has the same rights over its citizens that the parent has over his ward) to describe the role of the State.

However, experience shows that protection by the State is like a double-edged sword. When the State takes over the role of the parent, it often overrides the opinion of the ward; the State then decides what is good for the ward and what is not. This could at times go against the interests of the disabled. This issue also needs to be addressed.

 

Making the Legal System Accessible: In its submissions to the Committee, the NPRD had highlighted the difficulties encountered by disabled women at each stage of the criminal-legal process, right from filing an FIR, to testifying in court during the trial. The Committee has responded to the submissions by recommending the following:

·        When a physically or mentally disabled woman lodges a complaint of rape (Section 376 Indian Penal Code) or outraging of modesty (Section 354 IPC), such complaint shall be recorded by a woman police officer at the residence of such woman, or wherever she is comfortable. The complaint shall be recorded in the presence of a special educator or interpreter, depending on the need of the complainant. The entire process of recording of the complaint should also be videographed. (Section 154 Code of Criminal Procedure)

·        A physically or mentally disabled woman cannot be asked to go to the police station. Her complaint must be recorded at her residence or wherever she is comfortable. (Section 160 CrPC)

·        During the process of Test Identification Parade, if the person identifying the arrestee is physically or mentally disabled, then the identification process must be videographed. (Section 54A CrPC)

·        While recording the statement of a physically or mentally disabled woman in court, the Magistrate must take the assistance of a special educator or interpreter, depending on the needs of the complainant. Additionally, the recording of testimony of the woman should be videographed. (Section 164(5)(a) CrPC)

·        Additionally, the statement made in the above manner shall be treated as a statement for the purpose of cross examination during the trial and the physically or mentally disabled woman would not have to re-state the same. (Section 164(5)(b) CrPC)

·        Section 119 of the Indian Evidence Act, provides for the recording of testimony of ‘dumb witnesses’. The Committee has recommended that this derogatory phrase be replaced with ‘persons who are unable to communicate verbally’.

One of the major reasons why most cases involving rape of disabled women fail to convict the wrongdoer is because the testimony of the victim is not given due importance by the police or the court. The above recommendations, if incorporated in the law would go a long way in addressing this problem.

However, the definition of ‘special educator’ and ‘interpreter’ require further clarity when these recommendations are incorporated into the law. In our deliberations with the Committee we had stated that a special educator may not know sign language and an interpreter may know only a few signs, and therefore may not be always equipped to provide the required assistance in bridging the communication barrier between the victim and the legal system.

Medico-Legal Examination: Medical examination of the victim is of utmost relevance in cases of rape, both from the point of view of providing medical aid and from the point of gathering evidence for the trial. The Committee has recommended the setting up of Sexual Assault Crisis Centres at government and private hospitals to carry out this task. The Committee has recommended that the Counsellors present in these Centres should be professionally qualified to address the needs of disabled victims of sexual assault. In addition, the report of the counsellor regarding disability of the victim should be part of the medico-legal evidence that is submitted to the court.

Safety of Women and Abuse within Institutions: The Committee has affirmed that every citizen has a right to protection against violence and it is the duty of the State to provide safe spaces to all women, including disabled women. The Committee has recommended that such safe spaces should be accessible to the disabled in terms of architectural design, management and provision of services.  To address abuse of disabled children within institutions, the Committee has suggested that all such institutions and homes must be registered with the concerned High Court with the court acting as the guardian of such children.

The Committee has recommended that the concerned High Court should act as an oversight mechanism to all the institutions in the state and there should be weekly reports submitted to the High Court. The suggestion to professionalize the recruitment of care takers and superintendents, in terms of having mandatory qualifications etc. is a welcome suggestion and would improve the conditions of these institutions and the way they are currently managed.

Power Asymmetry and Socialization in Schools: The Committee has observed that it must be the task of educational institutions to recognise discriminatory attitudes among children on the basis of gender, disability, caste and so on and rectify the same.

Sex Education: The Committee has recognized that sex education must also be provided to disabled children and young people by professionally trained teachers and care givers, to ensure their safety and holistic development.

Aggravated Sexual Assault: The Criminal Law Amendment Bill 2012, which is at present before the Parliament provides that sexual assault against physically or mentally disabled women, is classified as an ‘aggravated sexual assault’ and has a minimum punishment of ten years imprisonment. While the Committee has endorsed most of the provisions in the Bill, it is unfortunate that this clause is absent from the Committee’s recommendations.

In the light of these recommendations made by the Committee, it is of utmost importance that the government act immediately. The NPRD demands that the recommendations made by the committee with regard to changes in laws should be passed in the Budget session of parliament. It also demands that necessary budgetary allocations for requisite infrastructure and providing personnel and their training should be made for implementing the other recommendations made by the Committee.

(Muralidharan)

Assistant Convener

National Platform for the Rights of the Disabled (NPRD)

9868768543

 

 

#India -Fast-track death sentence raises brows, Specific law on ‘whole life’ term needed #Vaw #Justice


By , TNN | Jan 20, 2013, 1

Fast-track death sentence raises brows

NEW DELHI: The death penalty awarded this week by in a rape-and-murder case after a 10-day trial before a fast-track court has raised apprehensions about a possible rash of such sentences in the prevailing climate for enhanced punishment. One of the human rights concerns is whether, in the public outrage following the Nirbhaya case, the judiciary would be under pressure to award death routinely in all rape-and-murder cases, departing from the doctrine of the rarest of rare cases.

Given the dangers involved in introducing death for rape, the Verma committee would do well to consider the alternative proposed by the apex court, however tacitly, in rape-and-murder cases over the last five years. Evolved through judicial activism, it is a life sentence that is exempt from the usual stipulation of being reviewed after 14 years.

With the 2008 verdict in the Swami Shraddhananda case, the Supreme Court began the trend of awarding life sentence subject to the condition that the convict would either stay behind bars till his natural death or not be released for hitherto unheard-of terms extending up to 35 years.

This innovation of a “whole life” or “long life” sentence is contrary to the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC), under which the executive has the discretion to remit a sentence in the course of the incarceration. The only restriction imposed by CrPC on this executive discretion is that for a heinous offence punishable with death, the convict cannot be released before 14 years.

It is on account of this restriction introduced in 1978 in the form of section 433A CrPC that life sentence in murder cases or rape-and-murder cases has often come to mean no more than 14 years. The Supreme Court departed from this norm for the first time ever in the Shraddhanand case, which was as egregious as Nirbhaya’s. It felt that Shraddhanand deserved neither the death penalty (as his crime, in its opinion, fell short of the rarest-of-rare category) nor the life sentence (which was found to be “grossly inadequate” as it was for all practical purposes no more than 14 years).

The spate of cases that followed the Shraddhanand precedent constitute a recurring signal from the judiciary that Parliament should amend the law providing a statutory backing to the discretion assumed by judges to put the life sentence beyond the ambit of section 433A CrPC. Such a legal provision may ensure greater objectivity in determining the cases in which the life convict would enjoy the existing safeguard of section 433A and those in which he would not be released after 14 years. It would also reduce the pressure on judges to resort to the extreme option of death penalty.

The disconnect between the statute and judicial practice in this regard cannot be ignored as judges at all levels – trial court, high court and apex court – have been awarding “whole life” or “long life” sentences, without being able to trace them to any legal provision. From the viewpoint of penology (the study of punishments), it is undesirable to impose such stringent sentences without a codification of the principles involved.

 

Shooting the messenger #FOE


PARVATHI MENON, The Hindu,  Dec 1, 2012

NOW THE TARGET: In Naveen Soorinje’s arrest, the police, government and media community appear to be authoritative, uncaring and complacent respectively.
Photo: By Special ArrangementNOW THE TARGET: In Naveen Soorinje’s arrest, the police, government and media community appear to be authoritative, uncaring and complacent respectively.

It is a matter of shame that instead of being celebrated, Naveen Soorinje, who followed journalism’s best traditions in reporting the attack by Hindutva vigilantes in Mangalore earlier this year, is now languishing in jail

Had it not been for 27-year-old Navin Soorinje, a reporter with Kasturi Channel Newz 24 in Mangalore, and footage that he so generously shared with other channels, India would never have seen the images of what transpired behind the closed doors of “Morning Mist” homestay in Mangalore on the evening of July 28 this year.

It was a brutal attack that a group of self-appointed arbiters of societal mores belonging to the right-wing Hindu Jagarana Vedike let loose on an unsuspecting gathering of young men and women at the homestay. The appalling images of marauding hooligans mercilessly beating young men, and slapping, stripping and molesting women constitute a very strong body of evidence to proceed against the culprits. At what point the Mangalore police arrived on the scene is not clear, although there are several media reports quoting witnesses as saying that the police were present even as the attack was taking place, or were at the very least aware of the commotion going on, and could have intervened much earlier. On this matter, please see: 

TIP-OFF

Having received a tip-off from a reliable source about a volatile gathering outside the homestay, Mr. Soorinje rushed to the spot with a cameraman. He recognised Subhash Padil, a prominent leader of the Hindu Jagarana Vedike. When he realised the motives of the gang, he tried several times to alert the jurisdictional police from the venue. When he failed, he alerted a counterpart from another channel, who also tried to call the jurisdictional police. No, he did not throw himself physically into the fight. That would have been foolhardy given the numbers against him. He did what any journalist would do in such a situation — he got his cameraman to film the outrage. Mr. Soorinje informed his colleagues of the attack and shared his footage with anyone who asked. In fact, the attack was first aired on a rival channel.

It therefore came as shock to Mr. Soorinje that his name was included in the First Information Report, dated July 28, as a participant in the attack. The charge sheet, filed on September 20, invokes sections of the CrPC that related to offences such as “rioting with deadly weapons,” criminal conspiracy, unlawful assembly, and using criminal force on a woman with the intention of outraging her modesty. It also invokes Sections 3 and 4 of The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act 1986.

After the charge sheet was filed on September 20, Mr. Soorinje applied for anticipatory bail in the JMFC 3rd court. The application was to be heard on November 15. However, as he was arrested on November 7, Mr. Soorinje filed for bail the following day. The JMFC 3rd court rejected his bail application on November 17.

HIGH COURT STAYS CASE

Meanwhile, Mr. Soorinje had applied for a stay on the proceedings of the case in the High Court in Bangalore. The stay was granted on November 19. On the strength of this, Mr. Soorinje filed another bail application in the JMFC 3rd court which came up for hearing on November 20. He was produced handcuffed in court, in violation of the Supreme Court guideline that forbids the handcuffing of under-trials. The JMFC 3rd Court then asked the High Court for a “clarification” on the stay order. The High Court vacated the stay on November 21. Mr. Soorinje then filed for bail in the First Additional District and Sessions Court in Mangalore, and on November 27 that court too denied him bail.

Two of the four journalists who covered the homestay attack have been charged with the same offences as the criminals they so bravely exposed. Of them, only Mr. Soorinje is in jail, and has been denied bail.

There are several disconcerting elements in the case against Mr. Soorinje.

First, there is evidence from the phone records of the jurisdictional sub-inspector that he received two phone calls from Mr. Padil, leader of the Hindu Jagarana Vedike, one before and one after the attack. This in itself may not prove collusion. Yet, Mr. Padil himself subsequently boasted to the media that he had alerted the police about “immoral activities” going on in the homestay and when they failed to act, he decided to enforce his own justice on the guests at the party.

Second, the case against Mr. Soorinje hangs on the evidence of Mr. Vijay Kumar, the organiser of the get-together and the only complainant. In his original complaint to the police, Mr. Vijay Kumar told a press conference, he had only referred to “activists of the Hindu Jagarana Vedike” as the perpetrators, with no names. In the FIR that formed the basis of the charge sheet, the names of the attackers appear, along with Mr. Soorinje’s. Mr. Kumar alleged that the police had made him sign a blank sheet of paper on the night of the attack.

ABSCONDING?

Third, in their charge sheet the police claimed Mr. Soorinje was “absconding,” even though he appeared three times before the investigating officer after the FIR was filed, even completing a 42-point police questionnaire with details of the incident. Further, he attended the first press conference held on November 19 by the new Commissioner of Police, Mangalore. He was constantly in public view, reporting live from various places. He was also issued a press pass by the Commissioner of Police that allowed him to cover a programme featuring the Congress President, Sonia Gandhi.

What does all this tell us? A police force that wishes to silence a conscientious journalist? A State government that cares little for the freedom of speech? A media community so complacent that it does not rally in support of a colleague who has become the victim of an obvious miscarriage of justice?

Naveen Soorinje chose to stand up for journalism’s best traditions, and it is a matter of shame that instead of being celebrated he has been jailed.

parvathi.menon@ thehindu.co.in

 

Orissa High court for law to check witch-hunting cases


, TNN | May 18, 2012,

CUTTACK: The Orissa high court asked the state government on Thursday to formulate a special law to check witch-hunting in the state. Division bench of Chief Justice V Gopala Gowda and Justice S K Mishra said the government should introduce a bill in the legislature to enact a law to tackle the menace of witch-hunting effectively.

The bench gave the suggestion while adjudicating on a PIL filed by social activist,Sashiprava Bindhani, seeking introduction of an Act to stop the heinous crime in the state. The bench observed the state should formulate a preventive strategy to eliminate such practices.

The petitioner had pointed out many women in the state are being branded witches and tortured brutally. Some are even gangraped and at times smeared with urine and human excreta. The petitioner had cited there is an urgent need to formulate a stringent law that could act as a deterrent to witch-hunting. Due to the absence of any specific law in the state regarding the crime, the accused get away easily, the petitioner added. She pointed out Jharkhand and Biharhave formulated a special law to check witch-hunting, but Odisha is yet to take any concrete step to deal with it.

Taking note of the allegations, the high court directed the state government to create public awareness at the gram panchayat level to eradicate the superstitions of witchcraft. The court also suggested health camps should be organized in villages to detect cases of psychologically disordered persons, who claim to be witches. In order to avoid the witnesses turning hostile in such cases, the investigating agency probing into the cases should take steps to record their statement under section 164 of code of criminal procedure, 1973, the court ordered.

“The court has observed that along with the main accused, the tantric and the persons, who provoke others to commit such inhuman acts against woman should also be booked and prosecuted under the sections of Indian Penal Code,” said the petitioner’s counsel Sujata Jena. “The court has directed that all the guidelines should be strictly observed by the authorities till a suitable legislation is passed by the state legislature,” Jena added.

 

THE FULL JUDGEMENT BELOW

 

Mrs. Sashiprava Bindhani vs State Of Orissa And Others on 25 April, 2012

ORISSA HIGH COURT : CUTTACK

W. P. (C). Nos. 17638 of 2011 and 6287 of 2012

In the matter of applications under Articles 226 and 227 of the Constitution of India.

—————

In W.P.(C) No. 17638 of 2011

Mrs. Sashiprava Bindhani … Petitioner

Versus

State of Orissa and others … Opposite parties

For petitioner – M/s. Sujata Jena, G.B.Jena and Satyabhama Nath

For opposite parties – Mr. Debashis Panda, Government Advocate

In W.P.(C) No. 6287 of 2012

Odisha Rationalist Society … Petitioner

Versus

State of Orissa and others … Opposite parties

For petitioner – M/s. Kshirod Kumar Rout, T.K.Nayak, C.R.Mohanty, Ms. J.Naik and S.K.Rout

For opposite parties – Mr. Debashis Panda, Government Advocate

—————

PRESENT

THE HONOURABLE CHIEF JUSTICE MR. V.GOPALA GOWDA

AND

THE HONOURABLE MR. JUSTICE S.K.MISHRA

————————————————————————————————————- Date of hearing – 25.04.2012 : Date of judgment – 25.04.2012 ————————————————————————————————————- 2

S.K.Mishra, J. In these writ petitions, the petitioners pray to direct the State

Government for framing of guidelines to deal with the cases of witch-hunting and to

protect women from such hunting till legislation is framed in this regard.

2. The petitioners in their applications have described the instances of

murders on the allegations that the deceased was practicing witchcraft. The

petitioners have pleaded about several such incidents in the State of Orissa. It is

further pleaded that the persons committing the murder do so under the influence of

‘Gunias’. As such, it is pleaded that the propagators of the crime are generally not in

a fit state of mind while committing the crime. The person often believes that he is

doing the right thing while committing murder of a person, who is alleged to be

practicing witchcraft. Such state of affairs is prevalent in all the tribal districts of the

State.

3. The petitioner pleaded that India is a signatory to the universal

declaration of human rights to give protection to women from discrimination and all

sorts of violence against them. Besides, the United Nations’ International Covenant

on Civil and Political Rights prescribe that all persons are equal before law and

entitled to equal protection of law. Government of India is a signatory to the same in

the year 1966. The Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination

against Women (CEDAW) resolved that the countries which have ratified the same

should take appropriate steps to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women.

Article 5(a) of CEDAW further provides that the State shall take appropriate

measures to modify social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women.

Witch-hunting, which is prevalent in several States, leads to dispossession, torture

and murder but as of date, although India is a signatory to CEDAW, no steps have

been taken to enact appropriate law to curb the menace of witch-hunting, which is 3

prevalent in this State. States like Bihar, Jharkhand and Chattisgarh have already

taken steps to eradicate such practices but our State has not taken any steps with

regard to eradicating such practice. Therefore, the petitioner prays that appropriate

direction be given to the State to enact law in this regard.

4. The petitioners rely on the reported case of Bishaka and others v.

State of Rajasthan and others reported in AIR 1997 SC 3011, wherein the

Supreme Court has taken into consideration the provisions of the CEDAW and has

held as follows:

“16. In view of the above, and the absence of enacted law to provide for the effective enforcement of the basic human right of gender equality and guarantee against sexual harassment and abuse, more particularly against sexual harassment at work places, we lay down the guidelines and norms specified hereinafter for due observance at all work places or other institutions, until a legislation is enacted for the purpose. This is done in exercise of the power available under Article 32 of the Constitution for enforcement of the fundamental rights and it is further emphasized that this would be treated as the law declared by this Court under Article 141 of the Constitution.”

It is, therefore, urged that in view of the fact that there is no legislation

to tackle the problem of witch-hunting, this Court should give direction to the State

Government to introduce appropriate law before the Legislature and in the

interregnum provide guidelines to prevent witch-hunting in the State of Orissa.

5. It is seen that the Legislature of Bihar has passed the Prevention of

Witch (Daain) Practice Act, 1999 (Bihar Act 9 of 1999). Similar Act has also been

passed by the Legislature of Chhatishgarh.

6. Witch-hunting is also seen in the State of Karnataka and a Committee

consisting of eminent Professors was asked to investigate and report about the

practice of Banamathi. Banamathi is the Kannada word for witch. The Committee

after careful and detailed investigation of a large number of cases and on the basis of 4

discussions with number of persons, who were considered to have knowledge on the

subject, came to the following conclusions:

“People have been suffering from this so called witchcraft i.e. Banamathi due to various causes. Some of the prominent causes have been fear, ignorance, superstition, personal and family problems, poverty, religious feuds, and village politics. This phenomenon of Banamathi is more prevalent in remote villages cut away from the main stream of life. It is also a fact that most of the victims are women. Even among women those belongs to marriageable and child-bearing age groups seem to be more prone to this problem.

All the sufferings of the victims attributed to Banamathi fit into familiar patterns of mental and physical diseases. Most of these are psychiatric cases. Many of these attacks were induced by a simple suggestion by the doctors and were also terminated by a similar suggestion. These people have been suffering from a variety of psychological disorders. Hysterical neurosis, a form of psychiatric disturbance, is the most common. This is characterized by episodes of abnormal behaviour, like screaming, developing fits, becoming unconscious, tearing away of clothes, inability to speak and so on. Theses are directly understandable in terms of strong socio-cultural beliefs, family and personal problems, poverty etc. It is common knowledge that such internal conflicts resulting in hysterical neurosis are found in other countries also. Their effects would be in accordance with the prevailing social and other conditions. In a few villages these psychological disturbances have assumed the form of ‘mass hysteria’ as witnessed in Yadlapur and in Benekanahalli villages. There are other kinds of neuroses like depression, obsession etc. from which some of the victims have been suffering.

The phenomenon of Banamathi as already mentioned has been in existence for decades and is deep rooted among some sections of the people in North Karnataka which formed part of the erstwhile Hyderabad State governed by the Nizam. This malady exists in some parts of the present Andhra Pradesh adjacent to Gulbarga and Bidar Districts also. The belief has been handed over from person to person and passed on from generation to generation. In fact, the belief in Banamathi is so deep rooted that even common physical ailments such as asthma, leprosy, tuberculosis, anaemia, and vitamin deficiency diseases are attributed to Banamathi. Susceptible and ignorant people have become so sensitive and scared that they think of suffering from the effects of Banamathi whenever they are not feeling well. The fact that even normal variations in the yield of 5

milk of a cow is also attributed to Banamathi shows to what extent the pernicious belief is deep seated in their minds.

The second category of the phenomena belongs to the appearance and disappearance of the objects, falling of stones, burning of sarees etc. It is very significant to note that nobody had ever witnessed those phenomena during the process of their actual occurrence. No body saw either the clothes catching fire or scares during the process of their marking. As already mentioned two persons were caught by the villagers when they were trying to throw stones. Besides, falling of stones is reported in many parts of the State and it is also interesting to note that according to such reports there was no falling of stones when a vigil was kept. A careful scrutiny of these phenomena will lead to the conclusion that there is no evidence of the working of any supernatural force. Many of the phenomena attributed to Banamathi must have been deliberately performed by persons due to various reasons such as to attract attention, to get sympathy, or to avoid extra work. These are all of common occurrence familiar to the doctors in the field of psychology and psychiatry. It may not be out of place to mention that nobody ever came forward to perform ‘Banamathi’ on the members of the team when they publicly offered themselves as subjects on many an occasion.

Thus, based on a careful analysis of all the available data and a close and searching examination of a large number of victims, the Investigation Committee has come to the unanimous and firm conclusion that the so called Banamathi is not due to any supernatural cause.

It is a fact that there has been a lot of suffering on account of these mental and physical problems. It is also a fact that vested interests have been using Banamathi as a means of exploitation. Attributing these phenomena to supernatural causes they have been reaping a rich harvest. Some of the families are ruined on account of spending large amounts of money in the hope of getting a cure of the ill-effects. Poor villagers and gullible people are being cheated.

The Committee would like to point out certain strong supporting factors which have lent credence to belief in Banamathi. The fact that many educated people, officials and men of public importance implicitly believing in Banamathi has also been responsible for its continued widespread belief among large sections of villagers. As we know superstitions are widely prevalent in our country. All of us know that an educated superstitious person is more harmful to society than his uneducated counterpart. Besides, occasional, nay, frequent dubious and unscientific reports, articles, and statements in some 6

newspapers tend to give a final seal of confirmation to the existence of some kind of witchcraft. In fact the phenomena attributed to Banamathi are not peculiar to places in Gulbarga or Bidar Districts. They are widespread in all parts of the state and the country. But they are called by different names. All these can be attributed to the same root causes excluding any supernatural force.

Another important reason for the spread of Banamathi is that the Police Department under its existing laws are helpless and cannot take notice of cases coming under the purview of Banamathi. This has indirectly given a free hand and also encouragement to persons who in the name of Banamathi scare innocent people and exploit them.” (Emphasis supplied)

7. Thus, it is clear that this social malady is prevalent because of the

ignorance of the people and an effective measure to control the same is necessary to

be taken. The Committee of Elimination of Discrimination Against Women of the

United Nations in the 51st Session held between 13th February to 2nd March, 2012 has

given its concluding observations on the elimination of discrimination against women.

The Committee also recommended to eliminate stereo-type and harmful practice. At

paragraphs 21 and 22, the Committee observed as follows:

“21. The Committee recognizes the rich culture and traditions of the State party and their importance in daily life. However, the Committee expresses its serious concern about the persistence of harmful norms, practices and traditions, patriarchal attitudes and deep-rooted stereotypes, regarding the roles, responsibilities and identities of women and men in all spheres of life, as well as the State party’s limited efforts to address such discriminatory practices. These include, in particular, polygamy, bride price (lobola), and in certain regions, virginity testing and witch hunting. The Committee is concerned that such customs and practices perpetuate discrimination against women and girls and that they are reflected in women’s disadvantageous and unequal status in many areas, including education, public life, decision-making and in the persistence of violence against women, and that, thus far the State party ahs not take sustained measures to modify or eliminate stereotypes and harmful practices.

22. The Committee urges the State party to :

(a) Put in place, without delay, a comprehensive strategy to modify or eliminate patriarchal attitudes and stereotypes 7

that discriminate women in conformity with the provisions of the Convention. Such measures should include efforts, in collaboration with civil society and community and religious leaders to educate and raise awareness of this subject, targeting women and men at all levels of the society;

(b) More vigorously address harmful practice by expanding public education programmes and by effectively enforcing the prohibition of such practices, in particular, in rural areas;

(c) Use innovative measures that target media people to strengthen understanding of the equality of women and men and through the educational system to enhance a positive and non-stereotypical portrayal of women; and

(d) Monitor and review the measures taken in order to assess their impact and to take appropriate action.”

8. From the above, it is clear that the CEDAW also endorse witch-

hunting as one of the harmful practices. The State should formulate a preventive

strategy to eliminate such practice. This Court, therefore, is of the opinion that the

State should introduce a bill in the Legislature to enact law to tackle the menace of

witch-hunting effectively. There should be concerted efforts to spread awareness to

eradicate the superstitions among the people. In the meantime, we recommend the

guidelines in following paragraphs for prevention of witch-hunting in the State of

Orissa. It shall be the duty of the State and the District Administration to prevent or

deter commission of witch-hunting and to provide protection to citizens from being

victim of witch-hunting. The State shall also provide procedure for prosecution of the

persons who endangers human life on the allegation that she is a witch.

9. For the aforesaid purpose, witch-hunting means and includes:

(i) Any person accuses another or defames a woman by calling her ‘Dayan’ or ‘Dahani’ or any other name or symbol suggesting her to be a witch; and

8

(ii) Any person/persons jointly or individually harms another person either physically or mentally or damages her property calling her to be a witch, shall be known to be practicing witch-hunting;

10. Whoever forces a woman to drink or eat inedible or obnoxious

substances on the allegation that she is a witch, shall be punishable under the

provisions of the Indian Penal Code or any special law attracted to such

commission of offence.

11. Any person calling another a ‘witch’ or being possessed one, uses

criminal force against her, or instigates or provokes others in doing so or abate with

intent to harm and/or to displace her from the house by using criminal force or

intimidates, which amounts to specific offence under the Indian Penal Code or any

other law, the authorities shall initiate appropriate action in accordance with the law

by lodging complaint in the Police Station.

12. The authorities also prevent any person from acting as a ‘tantric’ or a

‘witch doctor’ in the area claiming to have possessed spiritual and magical powers

to cure witch-craft or in possession of super-natural powers and performs any rituals

to free the woman from the evil spirit or entices a woman or any person or her

behalf with a promise to bless the woman with a child or performs any ritual on

behalf of any person with an intention to harm the woman, should be prosecuted, if

such an act amounts to any specific offence under the Indian Penal Code or any

other law.

13. Preventive steps.

In the meantime, the authorities shall take appropriate steps to prevent

witch-hunting and in particular take the following steps : 9

(i) Public awareness programmes should be launched in the Grama Panchayats to eradicate the superstitions of witch-craft;

(ii) Health camps should be organized in different village level to detect cases of the psychologically disordered, which may lead to a false acquisition being possessed or being a witch;

(iii) The Investigating Agency in cases involving allegations of witch-hunting, in order to avoid the witnesses turning hostile should take steps to get statement of the witnesses recorded under Section 164 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

14. These directions are not exhaustive. The State may, in addition to such

steps, take suitable and appropriate step to tackle the menace of witch-hunting.

Accordingly, we direct that the guidelines should be strictly observed by

the authorities till a suitable legislation is passed by the State Legislature. The State

Government shall introduce an appropriate bill in the State Legislature within a

period of one year.

The writ application is accordingly disposed of.

………………………….

S.K.Mishra, J.

V.Gopala Gowda, C.J. I agree.

………………………….

V.Gopala Gowda, C.J.

Orissa High Court, Cuttack,

Dated, April 25, 2012/JNS.